name is the core identity of your unique online identity. It is
the address used to make you accessible on the web and by email.
Once registered, a domain name is yours and yours alone. It may
not be used by anyone else on the Internet.
Names always have two or more parts, separated by periods. The part
on the left (the secondary domain) is the name you choose such as
“mydomain”. The right component is what is known as
a top-level domain name (such as .COM, .NET or .ORG).
connected to the Internet use IP (Internet Protocol) numbers (e.g.,
123.452.06.31) identify and communicate with other computers. Internet
users would have a difficult time remembering these long strings
of numbers to find sites, so domain names were developed to translate
IP numbers into easy-to-remember domain names. The process of translating
a domain name to its IP address is called DNS resolution and is
performed by a DNS(Domain Name System) Server.
the example MyDomain.com, the ".com" part of the domain
name is called the Top Level Domain. There are two types of Top
Level Domains. The most common type is gTLDs (generic Top Level
Domains), such as .COM, .NET., ORG. The other type of TLD is the
ccTLD (country code Top Level Domains) that have been assigned to
all countries and their dependencies (e.g., Italy is .it). Every
TLD Registry - generic or country code - has its own prices, policies,
and procedures that Registrants (name holders) in that Registry
are subject to. It is important to know and be prepared to accept
these terms before registering name(s) in a particular Registry.
The most commonly registered names are in the .COM, .NET, and .ORG
was a U.S. government agency that has essentially been replaced
by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).
ICANN now oversees the domain name registration industry concerning
the top-level domains: .COM, .NET, and .ORG . ICANN
is technically an international organization, which holds meetings
throughout each year to review and make policies.
is a domain name search feature for the .COM, .NET, and .ORG database.
WHOIS can be used to search for the owner/lease holder of any domain
name which has already been registered. This is valuable information
if you wish to contact the owner of a domain name that may or may
not be attached to a functioning (hosted) web site.
of Domain Names
for domain names needs to be renewed based on a scheduled yearly
interval. This gives the Registrant (you) and the Registry an opportunity
to update contact information and settle on the payment of the registration
fee(s). SherwoodHosting provides .COM, .NET, .ORG domain registration
and automatic renewals free of charge with the purchase of one of
our hosting packages. We feel you should not be bothered with the
details and worries of registration and renewal. The consequences
of not renewing or renewing late can mean a blackout for your web
site and email, or worse, someone could slip in and buy your name
out from under you.
Name Owner/Lease Holder transfer for a given domain name)
procedure for changing ownership of a domain name is known a Registrant
Transfer. Domain names can be given to or sold to a different party,
or the name of the company that owns the domain may change. The
Registrar requires a process by which permission from the old owner
to hand over control to the new owner is obtained and authorized
by notary public documentation. There may be a fee involved for
the transferring of a domain name from one owner to another, that
is separate from the actual price the former owner wants in order
to relinquish control of the name.
you are interested in a domain name that has been registered by
someone else, we can place a "watch" on the name such
that if it becomes available, we can alert you and register it.
Registrar (Transferring which ICANN-sanctioned company
actually holds the domain name registration)
you have a pre-existing domain name, it is helpful to have us transfer
the name to be registered by our registrar. We take care of the
transfer procedure, although you may need to assist us in giving
the previous registrar permission to release the name. If you choose
not to transfer a name to us, then:
is no discount in your hosting plan fee
have the responsibility for modifying the DNS server parameters,
up to you toremember to renew the name each year
probably needlessly paying a fee for regsitration, a service that
we offer for free.
we transfer a name for you, the process can take anywhere from a
few days to a few weeks, depending on your previous registrar and
how willing they are to let go of the registration. The steps are:
initiates the request for transfer
you know your previous registration username and password, then
we can use this information to streamline the process significantly
may need to authorize release of the name from the previous registrar,
most often by clicking on a link they provide in email to you.
Doing this quickly helps the process because after a short timeout
period, if you don't respond, we have to begin again.
If you do not have access to the email address that InterNIC has
on file for your account (and you do notknow #2 above), a different
process may need to be used, and will take longer.
edits need to be made immediately to an existing account hosted
by another provider, as your web designer, we can help you through
that stage until the web site is transferred to SherwoodHosting
handles all domain name registration filings with our registrar
for you. Once your domain name has propagated, you will be able
to use yourname.com instead of your temporary web access provided
in your welcome email letter. We highly recommend that you use mydomain.com
instead of your temporary URL.
is the organization who administers and holds domain name information,
and disseminates its current information to the worldwide domain
name database. Registrars must be an
ICANN-accredited entity (or an affiliate to such an entity) which
acts on the behalf of a Registrant regarding domain name registrations
or modifications. The earliest and formerly most popular registrars
were Network Solutions (now Verisign™) and Regiser.com. It
doesn't matter (except for price and ease of accessibility for changing
registration information) who is the registrar is-- they all provide
the same basic service to uniquely register your domain name in
the world and update the internet database.
entity, organization, or individual who is the owner/lease holder
of a particular domain name is known as the Registrant. When registering
a domain name for a Company or Organization be sure that the Company
or Organizations name is listed as the Registrant if you wish for
the Company to have complete control over ownership/lease hold.
organization responsible for the actual administration and maintenance
of the top-level domain database is known as the Registry. The Registry
is where Registrars create new or modify existing domain names for
require Primary and Secondary Name Servers (DNS) and IP Numbers
for every domain registered . Every domain name has to be linked
to this information for it to be valid (i.e., each domain name needs
to have an address attached to it). At the time of registration
some people do not intend to have Name Server information (which
is generally provided by a Web Host) because they are reserving
the domain name for later hosting. Domain Parking is a convenient
way to hold or 'Park' domain name(s) for an extended amount of time
if you are not ready to use them.
you want different domain names to point to different directories
of your web site, then you need DIR Aliasing. For DIR aliases, you
create a folder in your root directory, as the home directory of
the DIR Alias. FTP connections and e-mails are routed to your main
Example: http://www.newdomain.com points to http://www.primary.com/newdomain
E-mails sent to email@example.com is routed to firstname.lastname@example.org
Parking feature allows you to have multiple domain names pointed
to a your primary domain hosted account, i.e. www.newdomain.com
can redirect customers to www.primary.com. This redirection is entirely
performed at the DNS-level, and does not involve any kind of CGI
script. It's fast, reliable and will work with any type of web browser.
And, because this feature is implemented at the DNS-level, all FTP
and e-mail addresses associated with your alias will also be redirected
sub-domain is very similar to Directory Aliasing (DIR Aliasing),
except that instead of www.newdomain.com pointing to www.primary.com/newdomain,
www.newdomain.primary.com will point to www.primary.com/newdomain.
The difference is you do not need another domain name. This allows
you to select a sub-domain that will act as a prefix on your existing
domain. For all sub-domains we will assign another IP address and
directory in your domain to be used as the home directory of your
sub-domain's web site.
Sub-domains are useful in situations where you are hosting multiple
businesses under one domain name, e.g., Books, Paintings, Music,
etc. In this example, you would have multiple sub-domains,
e.g., www.mydomainname.com, books.mydomainname.com, paintings.mydomainname.com,
music.mydomainname.com, etc. You must create the subdomain
in your Cpanel first, and then create the subdirectory (folder)
in your web site in a second step. If you already have the subdirectory
created, rename it to something else and then back to the name
you want to achieve this sequencing.
is the distribution of your domain name information throughout the
internet so that other servers can know where to find your site.
During this time, your DNS Zone information is spread to servers
that didn't know about it before.
primarily affects you because of changes to your WHOIS (domain registration)
information. The WHOIS information is the master record that tells
every DNS Server in the world how to find you. A change to your
WHOIS information (done by SherwoodHosting.com) can take up to 72
hours to propagate fully.
(Uniform Resource Locator)
internet "address." A draft standard for specifying the
location of an object on the Internet, such as a file or a newsgroup.
They are used in HTML documents to specify the target of a hyperlink
which is often another HTML document (possibly stored on another
Examples of URLs:
first part of the URL, before the colon (often http), specifies
the access method. The part of the URL after the colon is interpreted
specific to the access method.
URL Redirection or Website Redirection
like email forwarding, URL forwarding redirects your browser from
the originally entered URL web address to the forwarded URL. Often
the original URL address entered will be a short, easy-to-remember
URL, while the destination page is actually defined by a much longer,
more complex URL. The new URL may be on the same server or a different
one, and may itself be subject to redirection. The user is normally
unaware of this process except that it may introduce an extra delay
while the browser sends the new request and the browser will usually
(although not always) display the new URL rather than the one the
user originally requested. Redirection can happen at several levels
(DNS, .htaccess, html header tag "refresh") but all have
the end result of getting your browser to go where the author or
web host wants you to go.
POP3 e-mail Account
technical name for a standard email mailbox is called a POP3 Account.
With POP3 e-mail accounts, you can retrieve all e-mails addressed
to your domain on our server. With multiple POP3 e-mail boxes, you
can have multiple addresses, such as email@example.com and
firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also set up addresses for
members of your family, staff, or divisions within your company,
such as email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Email arrives for you at SherwoodHosting and is stored in your POP
mailbox until you access it(and delete it from theserver).
can have an actual mailbox, like at a post office, or you (or we)
can set up a forwarding mechanism to forward you incoming domain
name address email to an existing mailbox (such as AOL or one that
comes with your connectivity account). See getting started with
email for more options and details.
e-mail forwarding feature enables you to forward e-mails sent from
various addresses to one specific e-mail box. This feature is available
in all of our hosting plans. You can consolidate multiple e-mail
addresses, business and personal, to your personal mailbox at your
local Internet Service Provider so that you can retrieve them all
from one location.
lists area feature which provide users with an effective and efficient
method of communicating with a number of people in an e-mail environment.
Whenever an e-mail is sent to a mailing list address, it is immediately
forwarded to all members of that list. The member list is maintained
by the moderator of the list. A mailing list is a great way for
turning e-mail into a public forum or business tool.
Alias, "Default" Address
aliasing is a general forwarding technique- when no email user for
your domain name matches a valid account or other forwarding address
that you've set up, the email is transferred to use your "default"
email alias address Thus if you have mailboxes a,b, and c, and someone
sent email to d or e it would be transferred to your default address.
e-mail addressed to email@example.com will be delivered to
your e-mail box. You can use this feature to provide your customers
with a variety of addresses to send their e-mail to, which in turn
could help you sort out your incoming messages. You could have firstname.lastname@example.org
for general questions, email@example.com for orders and more.
convenient usage of this feature is that you can set up a default
transfer address, and then give out as many specific email addresses
as you want without having to set up specific mailboxes. For example
if you want to "track" how someone got your email address,
you can for instance give out firstname.lastname@example.org when registering
at amazon.com, then if you receive email addressed to email@example.com
(which would go to your default mailbox address), then you know
that the email came from or was leaked (address lists sold) by amazon.
Microsoft Outlook's "Out of Office Attendant," an
autoresponder is a feature that allows you to generate automatic
customized responses whenever a specific e-mail address receives
an e-mail. Typically, this feature is used by people when they are
away, notifying the sender of an e-mail that the recipient is away
and will be back on a specified date. Alternatively, it can be used
as a business tool to send specific responses with information,
such as pricing information if a customer sends an e-mail to a specific
address, i.e. firstname.lastname@example.org.
you set up an Autoresponder, you do not have to delete asimilarly
named POP username or forwarder. This allows you to temporarily
set up an out-of-office message response.
Hosts offer a service where their "server" stores your
web site's HTML files and graphics on hard disk, and then deliver
those files upon request from your web browser (such as Netscape,
Internet Explorer, Opera, or Mozilla) for viewing.
Transfer Protocol. The standard rules that govern the transfer of
files and programs over the Internet. FTP allows files to be moved
from one computer to another over a network, regardless of the types
of computers or operating systems involved in the exchange. FTP
is also the name of the program a user invokes to execute the protocol.
information on the FTP process
and software to accomplish it.
Web Site Traffic
files (web pages, text, images) accessed by people browsing your
web site constitutes web site traffic, also known as data transfer.
For example, every time a web page, image, midi file, mpeg video,
e-mail, etc. is loaded or transferred from or to a server, a data
transfer occurs. All hosting plans include a limited amount of web
site traffic, also known as a bandwidth quota. This quota is rarely
reached unless you have (1) huge MP3 or video files that are downloaded
frequently, or (2) pages in your web site that are tremendously
popular and are viewed by thousands of people. Web traffic quota
measurement is reset on the first day of each month.
Web site statistics
number of commercially available web statistic analyzers exist
the market that will allow you to take standard web server log
files and produce graphical reports. SherwoodHosting.com provides
customers with the option of using one of several provided (our
favorite is AWstats), or one of their own choosing (and installation).
(Common Gateway Interface) provides advanced users to write (or
use existing from free libraries) specialized software programs
(scripts) that can perform custom or advanced complex functions.
"cgi-bin" (CGI binary) is the term used for both the type
of custom software as well as the standard web directory name (sub-folder)
that contains the program files to be executed.
typical use for CGI is the processing of online forms. When the
user fills in the boxes on the form and hits the SUBMIT button,
the CGI program specified in the html code will be run on the server,
and the information in the client-side browser form become available
to the program as parameters. The program, being a program, can
then do anything the programmer wanted it to do.
for example, is a standard program written in C that transmits the
contents of the boxes on the form to a specified destination, then
displays a web page that confirms the action.
CGIs might ask for a password, check the password, then access a
database for requested information. What it does is up to the programmer,
but we do ask that the CGIs are reasonable in their usage of CPU
time and memory. While we do not require that they be submitted
for approval first, out of control programs that hog the CPU and
system resources will be hunted down and killed by our system monitors.
pre-installed system CGIs reside in the public cgi-sys subdirectory.
Your presonal CGIs reside in a web subdirectory named cgi-bin directory
under your public_html directory. If your domain is named mydomain.com,
you would then access your scripts as http://www.mydomain.com/cgi-bin,
while the pre-installed system scripts are located at http://www.mydomain.com/cgi-sys.
You may need to set up the preinstalled scripts thru your browser
control panel to see the correct HTML that is used for such. The
control panel will walk you thru these simple processes.
SherwoodHosting.comT web accounts come with full access to their
own cgi-bin directory. Your web site can be fully interactive by
using the power of custom programs executed from your cgi-bin directory.
Audio/Video HTTP Streaming
and video files can be stored on your web site for playing/viewing
in web browsers. Although we do not have Real or other streaming
servers, you can still "stream" audio, video, and flash
files to your web site viewers. Visitors can play prerecorded sound,
video & animated files over the Internet using the http protocol.
Page Password Protection
and file password protection allows you to protect web pages by
asking browsers for their username and password using HTTP-standard
Basic Authentication. The general procedure for setting up access
authorization for your users is accomplished via your cpanel settings
or the usage of an .htaccess file.
Page Creation (Authoring) Software Applications
are a number of appications that you or your web designer can use
to create and maintain (edit) your pages in your web site. These
vary in styles and capabilities (and price).
on your own
authoring software helps you easily create and manage professional-quality
websites without programming. Both new users and web development
professionals will enjoy the ease in building and maintaining high-quality
web sites in very little time. SherwoodHosting.comT provides FrontPage®
extensions free of charge in all of its hosting plans.
FrontPage® extensions allow you to connect to your Server directly
with your FrontPage® client and make the creation and maintenance
of your Server much easier. They also allow you to use special FrontPage®
Bots, which can greatly enhance the functionality of your Web pages.
Server Pages (ASP) technology allows HTML pages to contain complex
scripts that are executed at the server, allowing for dynamic pages
to be created from data retrieved from databases or any other resources
available to the server. You can write your own ASP scripts and
execute them from your cgi-bin directory.
on the World Wide Web are written in a simple "markup language"
called HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML looks
a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a
block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear, additionally,
in HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked
to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed
using a browser, such as
Netscape or Internet Explorer.
- HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires
a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on
the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World
Wide Web (WWW).
coined by Ted Nelson around 1965 for a collection of documents
containing cross-references or "links" which, with the aid of an
interactive browser program, allow the reader to move easily from
one document to another
Protocol address. Every machine on the Internet has a unique 32-bit
numerical assignment which allows computers and hosts on the network
to locate it. The IP address consists of a dotted octet, four sets
of numbers separated by dots. (For example: 126.96.36.199) If a machine
does not have an IP address, it is not officially on the Internet.
pioneering network of Advanced Research Projects Agency computers
under the authority of the U.S. Department of Defense. Predecessor
to the Internet, ARPANET was an experimental network developed in
the late 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense to create a communications
link which would enable ARPA scientists and research contractors
to share their resources and ideas. The network was designed to
survive breakdowns along any of its connections, in case of a nuclear
attack, through use of individual packet switching computers interconnected
by leased lines. If a connection broke down, the packets could be
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. A non-profit, public
benefit California corporation acknowledged by the Department of
Commerce in October 1998 to assume the functions of IANA as part
of the transfer of Internet administration to the private sector.
Redundant Internet Connection
at SherwoodHosting.com have fully redundant connections to the
Internet backbone with multiple carriers. Network connectivity to
your hosting service will not be a concern. Our servers also have
redundant backup power supplies (UPS: uninterruptible power supply)
and diesel generators, and are located in a secure computer vault
Secure web site (SSL)
security and privacy, you can take advantage of our Secure Socket
Layer (SSL) service. By using this service, personal data such as
credit card information transmitted through a secure (SSL) form
will be fully encrypted en route to our secure server. Although
unlikely, it is possible for data to be intercepted on the internet,
and thus encrypted information is safe because it cannot be decoded
by the snooping party.
stands for Domain Name System. DNS is basically a piece of translation
software. This System translates a domain name such as microsoft.com
into an IP address, allowing people to easily access the addresses
of websites or other services.
and Secondary Name Servers
Primary and Secondary Name Servers indicate the hostname of a name
server that will contain authoritative data for the domain name
being accessed and will deliver/translate that domain name to its
corresponding IP number. The designation of "secondary"
indicates that the name server will be used in addition to, and
as a backup for, the primary name server that is listed as Primary.
Note however that in the name-lookup process, the primary does not
take priority over the secondary or any other listed server(s)--
jsut think of it as an alternate.
stands for Internet Protocol. Each computer host on the Internet
has a unique IP address, which correlates to its domain name.
machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for
people to remember IP addresses are numerical, often 32-bit addresses
that are expressed as four numbers between 0 and 255, separated
by periods, for example: 10.68.159.4 For
more information, HowStuffWorks.com
has an easy to comprehend article on How
IP Addresses Work as a part of its larger article on How
Domain Name Servers Work.
InterNIC is a concept for an integrated network information center
that was developed by several companies, including Network Solutions,
in cooperation with the U.S. Government. Currently, the term "InterNIC"
is being used in conjunction with a neutral, stand alone web page
(located at http://www.internic.net) that is established for the
purpose of providing the public with information regarding Internet
domain name registration. InterNIC is a registered service mark
of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
(Internet Service Provider)
a rather generic term, ISP generally refers to a person, organization,
or company that allows its users access (a.k.a. connectivity) to
the Internet. In addition to Internet access, many ISPs provide
other services such as web hosting, email, and other services.